The blower itself will be an ordinary squirrel-cage type, all of the blast power comes from the turbolator on the nozzle end of things. With the transformer flipped up, it'll be a weak breeze coming off the blower and a majorly smokey fire if it ignites like that from the lack of air.
Your pump may require priming. The picture you have that shows the pump has the high pressure line to the nozzle visible, right near it is a bleeder fitting- use that with a hand pumped brake bleeder, or elevate the fuel tank above the burner so that the oil runs through and primes the pump before turning it on.
Mine always makes a gentle humming when run with an unprimed pump and the igniter disconnected, prime it and the pump makes a more aggressive sound along the lines of a hydraulic noise.
Though your motor runs, that's progress at least. Before you get too eager into tearing the pump itself down, try a known-good nozzle (Such as a new one from a sealed tube) and work with the plumbing around the pump first. You can also tap into the high pressure line and install a pressure gauge- a typical 0-200 PSI gauge will suffice. Most nozzles need at least 85 PSI to operate reliably, but most burners run between 120 and 180 PSI.
With the motor running, note the direction of rotation- which should be visible on the blower wheel during spin-up and spin-down. Somewhere on the motor or pump will be a rotation arrow. I doubt it's backwards, they usually used a single-phase motor that is factory set to the correct rotation, but it doesn't hurt to check.